The Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS), sometimes referred to as the Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) is a call taking system used to dispatch appropriate aid to medical emergencies including systematized caller interrogation and pre-arrival instructions. Priority Dispatch Corporation is licensed to design and publish MPDS and its various products, with research supported by the International Academy of Emergency Medical Dispatch (IAEMD). Priority Dispatch Corporation, in conjunction with the International Academies of Emergency Dispatch, have also produced similar systems for Police (Police Priority Dispatch System, PPDS) and Fire (Fire Priority Dispatch System, FPDS).
MPDS was developed by Jeff Clawson from 1976 to 1979 prior to his medical school training. Clawson designed a set of standardized protocols to triage patients via phone and reduce call processing time and create efficiencies in the emergency medical system (EMS) response. Protocols were first alphabetized by chief complaint that included key questions to be asked the call taker, give pre-arrival instructions to the reporting party, and to assign the proper resources to the request for EMS assistance.
MPDS begins with a call-taker dispatcher asking the reporting party key questions. These questions allow the EMS dispatchers to categorize the call by chief complaint and to establish a determinant level ranging from “A” (minor) to “E” (immediately life-threatening) relating to the severity of the patient’s suspected condition. The phone information is used to accurately assign resources to the incident scene and the proper code of response i.e., red lights and siren. The MPDS also uses the determinant O which may be a referral to another service or other situation that may not actually require an ambulance response.
In 2020 the spread and concern of COVID-19 had caused a dramatic change in the procedures used by pre-hospital personnel in an effort to minimize risk following known, and unknown exposure to a patient with COVID-19. In an effort to minimize exposure on all EMS pre-hospital care patients many delivery systems are limiting the previously standard number of personnel arriving at the scene that physically interact with the patient. Further techniques including moving the patient from a confined space environment to the outdoors, and greater use of a higher level of PPE are practiced in an effort to minimize exposure.
Each of these efforts, including additional questioning may benefit the hopeful outcome of reduced exposure. However, I believe that technology can provide additional benefit utilizing anonymized cell phone location data (“pings”) based on occupancy types that speak to the number of people per square foot, amount of linger time, and pathway crowding. This data could be used to better understand where people congregate and what methods could be used to leverage this data in an effort to minimize exposure to COVID-19.
Information on person per square foot, time spent on location, activity during linger time i.e., sweating at a gym, seated at a church, could be used to more clearly identify potential location dangers of biological hazardous previously not well understood. This information will provide dividends in a healthy work environment, potentially higher morale, and overall healthy workforce, potentially saving resource dollars for other preventative needs.
Locations and occupancies of potential “super-spreader” environments learned prior to arrival at the scene may reduce call to patient contact time as EMS response personnel can be fully and appropriately dressed in personal protective equipment (PPE) upon arrival at the scene. This data could lead to other modifications to EMS response not able to be understood today due to the lack of available data.
Due to the heavy burden of workers’ compensation claims for federal, state and local government related to COVID-19, and the likelihood of additional biological challenges in the future, the potential benefit of leveraging anonymized cellular phone location data into the MPDS for responder safety and public health is highly valuable.